Selective mutism is a type of teen anxiety disorder that develops during childhood. It manifests as the inability to speak in certain situations or around certain people. Most parents confuse selective mutism with shyness or timidity.
Children with selective mutism do not intentionally refuse to speak but are triggered by certain situations and people, making them unable to express themselves. Teens with selective mutism may struggle to communicate in school, work, or certain social settings. Parents can perceive this as deliberate or defiant, but in a real sense, the behavior is a form of self-protection. Selective mutism can lead to teenage low self-esteem, social anxiety disorder, and academic problems if treatment is not sought.
Parents should consider sending their adolescent to a teen residential treatment center when the symptoms significantly impact their daily functioning, academic progress, social interactions, and overall well being. A residential treatment center for selective mutism will provide a supportive and therapeutic environment specifically designed to address the complex needs of teens with Selective Mutism, offering evidence-based interventions, individualized treatment plans, and a comprehensive approach to help them overcome communication challenges and thrive in various social settings.
Key Healthcare understands this anxiety disorder’s unique challenges, which can significantly impact a teenager’s ability to communicate and interact in social settings. We are committed to providing the best residential treatment program designed specifically for teens struggling with Selective Mutism.
Parents should understand selective mutism, its causes, signs, and symptoms, and how residential treatment for selective mutism is undertaken to help adolescents find their voices and thrive. Read on to explore the importance of early intervention, evidence-based therapeutic approaches, and the empowering environment we create.
Addressing Selective Mutism
Selective mutism is a rare complex anxiety disorder that typically affects between 0.47%-1.6% of the United States population. Its prevalence is higher in immigrant children in the US since they have difficulty fitting in. It is also much more prevalent in children from language-minority families because they may find it difficult to communicate even though they understand English.
Studies suggest no difference between genders regarding selective mutism/ speech anxiety disorder.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorizes selective mutism as a complex anxiety disorder. To diagnose selective mutism, your teen must satisfy the following criteria: –
- A consistent failure to speak and communicate in specific situations or around certain people despite speaking on other occasions. This may be in school, social gatherings, and even at home.
- Lack of communication should interfere with their academic and occupational achievements.
- The mutism must be continuous and not for less than one month. This may exclude the first month of a new school or job.
- The mutism should not be attributable to a lack of knowledge, a language barrier, or discomfort with certain situations.
- The mutism should not fall within other communication disorders such as childhood-onset fluency, schizophrenia, or due to disorders such as the autism spectrum.
Selective mutism diagnosis is often made early, typically between the ages of 3 and 6. It is also attributable to three primary triggers, i.e., person, activity, and place. These triggers may impair your teen’s ability to engage with peers and affect their quality of life.
Signs and Symptoms of Selective Mutism
Selective mutism is a protective anxiety disorder children and teens use to avoid uncomfortable situations and activities.
Teens with selective mutism find communicating difficult in certain situations, which may impair their class or social participation. The following are selective mutism symptoms:
- Inability to speak to extended family members, although they can speak to immediate family members.
- Inability to speak when visitors or unfamiliar people are present at home.
- Avoidance of social situations that require communication
- Withdrawal from social settings
- Fight or flight response when faced with social situations.
- Using non-verbal communication, such as pointing when required to speak.
- Urine and bowel accidents when faced with social situations.
- Avoiding eye contact with unfamiliar individuals
- Trouble eating during social situations.
- Needing to only communicate with or through a familiar individual.
If your teen exhibits any of these signs and symptoms, it is important to seek professional help.
Causes of Selective Mutism
Selective mutism or silent anxiety disorder is caused not by one factor but by several factors. The following are some selective mutism causes:
- Genetic disposition. As with other anxiety disorders, teens with selective mutism have a genetic or hereditary disposition to anxiety. According to studies, the contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene has been linked to an increased risk of developing general anxiety disorders, selective mutism, and other social anxiety traits. If you, as a parent, have been diagnosed or struggle with anxiety, your teen may inherit this gene from you.
- Drastic changes. Significant transitions like moving to a different country or school may cause teens anxiety. This may be due to difficulty transitioning or learning a new way of life from what they are accustomed to. This anxiety may manifest as the inability to speak in certain social situations.
- Neurological issues. Teens with neurological or neurodevelopmental issues like speech delays may develop selective mutism. This is because they feel uncomfortable expressing themselves to unfamiliar individuals.
- Other psychological issues. Mental health conditions, such as teen anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in Teenagers), childhood anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, and teen panic disorder, may cause teens to develop selective mutism. These co-occurring disorders can cause your teen trouble in social situations requiring social interactions.
- Family and environmental factors. Teens who develop selective mutism may learn the behavior, while parenting styles and avoidance behavior may reinforce it. They may have little time to interact with others causing them to be anxious around new people or situations.
Residential Treatment for Selective Mutism in Teens
Teen residential treatment can be an effective selective mutism treatment. At Key Healthcare, we offer a residential treatment center reserved for teens with chronic mental health conditions and substance abuse issues. The program is tailor-made for teens between 14-17 years of age and runs for 45-60 days. The program utilizes evidence-based therapy approaches, such as cognitive behavior therapy for teenagers (CBT), dialectal behavior therapy (DBT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to treat several mental health conditions. We also utilize holistic therapy approaches such as art, yoga, music, and surf therapy to ensure your teen has a way of expressing themselves.
Here are the key therapies utilized during residential treatment and how they work to treat selective mutism in teens.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Teen CBT is a psychotherapeutic therapy used by therapists to help teens learn how to identify and change their negative behavioral patterns. During therapy, your teen will learn how to identify negative patterns of thinking that affect their emotional well-being. They also learn how to change their stress and replace negative and positive reactions.
CBT focuses on changing adverse reactions that may worsen mental health conditions like anxiety and depression in teens. Once these negative emotions are identified and isolated, your teen will learn to be more objective in their reaction and have realistic thoughts in situations that cause them stress.
CBT incorporates several strategies to help your teen recover from their selective mutism. It incorporates contingency management that uses a reward system to reinforce positive communication achievements.
If your teen can communicate with the therapist, they are rewarded for reinforcing positive communication. The reward system can be used to shape reinforcement by encouraging your teen to mouth words and ultimately speak in stressful situations.
CBT also utilizes desensitization techniques that gradually expose your teen to stressful situations and induce relaxation. This technique gradually desensitizes your teen and changes their stress reaction. CBT also incorporates social skill training to help teens develop healthy coping mechanisms.
CBT utilizes cognitive and behavioral therapy to ensure teens can be more confident in reacting to situations that cause selective mutism.
Dialectal Behavior Therapy (DBT)
While teen DBT may not be the first-line treatment approach for Selective Mutism, it can still benefit individuals with co-occurring conditions, such as anxiety or mood disorders, which commonly coexist with Selective Mutism.
In such cases, DBT can help address these comorbidities and provide individuals with additional skills to manage their emotions and improve overall well-being.
Exposure can be an effective tool in treating selective mutism. During exposure therapy, your teen is exposed to a stressful situation in a safe and secure environment.
For selective mutism, the therapist creates a safe space for the teen, then incorporates the situation that triggers your teen’s mutism. This deliberate exposure desensitizes your teen and encourages them to feel relaxed when faced with a stressful situation.
Exposure therapy allows for the gradual increase of people and places your teen feels comfortable. Exposure therapy can effectively treat selective mutism by reinforcing positive behavior using a reward system.
This is the primary treatment for many mental health conditions and substance abuse issues. It is done through a one-on-one session between the teen and a therapist, where the teen can express themselves. The session is done in a safe, secure environment that fosters open communication.
Teen Individual therapy incorporates both CBT and DBT to ensure the effectiveness of treatment. Individual therapy trains your teen to develop appropriate social skills that encourage interpersonal communication.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)
AAC involves using alternative communication, such as drawings, symbols, and pictures. It is mainly adopted by children who have difficulty expressing themselves in classrooms and other social situations.
It can be incorporated into selective mutism treatment for teens during the initial stages to build rapport between the therapist and the teen. AAC is subsequently phased out to encourage verbal communication.
Since selective mutism is a form of anxiety disorder, medication can be used in its treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as Fluoxetine, have effectively reduced anxiety symptoms. Medication should only be used for teens with severe anxiety disorder and chronic selective mutism.
Holistic Treatment Approaches
At Key Healthcare, we utilize holistic treatment approaches such as art, music, yoga, and surf therapy to build healthy coping mechanisms. These approaches are incorporated in individual, group, and family therapy sessions to allow teens to express themselves. In art therapy, teens learn how to self-express to paint, draw, sculpt, and sketch.
Art therapy is important since it helps teens process their emotions effectively. It also increases self-esteem, self-expression, introspection, and problem-solving. These acquired skills are important in managing emotions making art therapy an effective treatment of selective mutism.
Teens learn music production, lyricism, and playing musical instruments in music therapy. Music has historically been used as a means of self-expression and stress reliever. Therapists incorporate music into sessions to allow teens to relax and feel safe to open up about their struggles.
Lyricism encourages identity exploration, self-expression, improved communication skills, and increased self-confidence to ensure your teen can face triggers that may cause selective mutism.
At Key Healthcare, we also incorporate recreational activities such as exercising and hiking into our treatment regimen. Recreational activities are important in developing positive coping mechanisms to deal with stressful situations.
Benefits of Residential Treatment for Selective Mutism in Teens
Parents may find it challenging to separate from their children and entrust their care to others, especially in a residential setting. The emotional bond between parents and their children can decide to send them away difficult and evoke feelings of guilt or anxiety. Understanding the benefits of residential treatment facilities and how they can help your teen helps parents to make the most important decision for a better life. Some benefits of residential treatment that parents should know include :
- Round-the-clock support and care. Residential treatment facilities offer 24/7 care and support for teens with mental health conditions. Since selective mutism is a form of teen social anxiety, your teen will receive support and care while they recover. Residential facilities also offer a high level of tailor-made care to fit your teen’s needs. As they recover, they will receive professional help and never feel alone.
- Change of environment. Residential treatment facilities offer a much-needed change of environment. Certain people and places may trigger teens with selective mutism, making a residential facility feel safe for them. Key Healthcare’s Los Angeles facility in Malibu offers a suitable change of environment close to the beach. This can be beneficial in creating a safe space for teens with selective mutism.
- Different modalities of therapy. Residential treatment centers utilize several modalities to treat teen mental health conditions. Our RTC program incorporates evidence-based and holistic therapy approaches to treat selective mutism. This multi-faceted approach ensures your teen feels safe and can focus on recovery.
- A safe and structured environment. Structure and security are important in teen treatment. Residential treatment centers are structured so your teen will engage in activities to help treat their anxiety and selective mutism. To wind down, they will participate in individual and group therapy, shared duties and chores, and recreational activities.
- Dual diagnosis treatment. Residential treatment centers for teens may offer dual diagnosis treatment for co-occurring disorders. Co-occurring disorders exist simultaneously with other conditions, such as teen substance abuse issues. RTC programs focus on treating both conditions to ensure effective recovery.
- Peer support. RTC programs offer your teen an opportunity to gain peer support. During teen group therapy and recreational activities, your teen can bond with their peers, who can be crucial in recovery.
Choosing the Best Residential Treatment for Selective Mutism in Teens
Residential treatment centers have, in recent years, received negative reputations. To ensure your teen receives the best care, it is important to consider several factors when choosing a residential treatment facility. These factors include the following;
- Location. The location of an adolescent residential treatment center plays a crucial role in fostering a serene and inviting atmosphere to encourage teens to be a part of it. A serene environment can greatly contribute to adolescents’ overall therapeutic experience and well-being. When an RTC is situated in a tranquil and peaceful setting, like near beaches surrounded by nature’s beauty, it creates a soothing ambience that promotes relaxation, reflection, and healing.
- Accreditation and licensing. Every residential treatment center in the United States needs to be licensed. Although each state has its own set of regulations about licensing, all treatment facilities need to be properly accredited and licensed to offer treatment services. Ensure that the state properly licenses your chosen treatment facility. You can verify accreditation on the facility’s website.
- Staff qualifications. You should choose a facility that employs qualified staff. Staff qualifications and experience are important to ensure your teen will be in safe hands as they are treated for selective mutism. Unqualified staff may pose a risk since they are not regulated by respective professional bodies that monitor the conduct of professionals. You can check staff qualifications by inquiring during your facility visit or through the facility website in the “About Us” section.
- Costs. Treatment for mental health conditions such as selective mutism can be expensive. It is important to choose a facility that accepts your insurance provider. You can verify coverage by clicking the “Verify Insurance” button on the Key Healthcare website. You can also choose a facility that offers scholarships for teens with mental health conditions if your insurance does not cover teen mental health treatment or if you do not have insurance coverage.
- Aftercare planning. Residential facilities offering aftercare services ensure that your teen receives care after treatment. This can be done through follow-up sessions or phone coaching, which guides your teen in navigating stressful situations.
Some important information that you may also need to inquire about includes the following:
- The program’s duration
- Staff to patient ratio
- The success rate of the program
In conclusion, selective mutism is a type of anxiety disorder that manifests as the inability of a teen to speak in certain situations or around certain people. This can have detrimental effects on the teen’s academic and social life. Selective mutism is rare and only affects around 0.47%-1% of the United States population. It can be treated using a multi-faceted approach using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectal behavior therapy (DBT), augmented and alternative communication therapy (AAC), art, music, meditation, and yoga therapy. These approaches help teens process their feelings and develop healthy ways of coping with stressful situations.
Residential treatment uses all these methods to ensure the efficiency of selective mutism treatment in teens. Residential treatment is beneficial in treating selective mutism as it provides a structured and safe environment for your teen to focus on recovery. It also offers round-the-clock care to ensure your teen receives high-quality care and support.
If your teen exhibits the signs and symptoms of selective mutism, seeking professional help from facilities like Key Healthcare is important.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
How long does Residential Treatment for Selective Mutism typically last?
Depending on the facility and severity of the condition, selective mutism treatment can take 30-180 days. Treatment can take longer if there is dual diagnosis treatment for co-occurring disorders.
What are the potential side effects of medication therapy?
Anxiety medication, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), can have side effects like constipation, indigestion, diarrhea, dry mouth, insomnia, headaches, loss of appetite, low libido, and erectile dysfunction in men.
How can parents support their child during Residential Treatment?
Selective mutism and parenting can be hard. You can support your teen during residential treatment by actively participating in their recovery. Visit them regularly to ensure their well-being and be empathetic with them as they recover.
What happens after Residential Treatment?
After treatment, teens can transition back into their normal lives. This may be challenging due to relapse triggers like old friends who can return your teen to selective mutism.
How does Selective Mutism differ from shyness?
Children with a shy temperament can navigate everyday tasks and communicate even if it is difficult. Kids with selective mutism cannot express themselves when faced with stressful or uncomfortable situations.
Can adults have Selective Mutism?
Yes, adults can have selective mutism. Selective mutism usually develops during childhood and can persist through adulthood if left untreated.
Can trauma cause Selective Mutism?
Yes, trauma can cause selective mutism. Teens who have experienced trauma such as sexual assault or violence may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in teens) and selective mutism as a self-protective behavior. Both teen PTSD and selective mutism treatment are possible with Key Healthcare residential treatment.
Is Selective Mutism a learning disability?
No. Selective mutism is not a learning disability but a complex anxiety disorder. People with learning disabilities may develop selective mutism because they feel embarrassed to speak in front of others.
How can teachers and school administrators support a student with Selective Mutism?
School administrators and teachers can support teens with selective mutism in school by developing healthy and supportive relationships that offer open communication. They can also encourage non-verbal communication to ensure the teen can express themselves.